D. G. Pfeiffer
Systematics of Homoptera
Department of Entomology
Virginia Tech, Blacksburg VA 24061-0319
Updated 25 March 1999
I. Suborders of Homoptera:
II. Major families of Homoptera:
- Beak arises from back of the head
- Antennae short, bristle-like
- Tarsi 3-segmented
- Active insects
- Beak appears to arise between the front coxae
- Antennae long, thread-like
- Tarsi 1-2-segmented
- Mostly inactive insects
- Antennae arising between eyes, or anterior to eyes
- Middle coxae close together
- no Y-vein in anal region of front wing.
- Antennae arising on side of head beneath eyes
coxae elongated and separated
- 2 anal veins in front wing meet apically to form a Y-vein.
- Tarsi 2-segmented with 2 claws
- four wings
- antennae 5-10 segments
- mouthparts well-developed in both sexes.
- Small bodied
- 2-segmented tarsi
- covered with whitish powder
- Antennae with 3-7 segments
- wings membranous, hind wings much smaller than front wings. (
Tree of Life)
- Tarsi 1-segmented with a single claw (when legs present)
- females wingless and often legless
- male with 1 pair of wings and no mouthparts.
- Ben-Dov, Y. 1993. A Systematic Catalogue of the Soft Scale Insects of the World. Sandhill Crane Press.536 p.
- Ben-Dov, Y. and C. J. Hodgson. 1997. Soft Scale Insects: Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests
Vol. 7B. Elsevier. 442 p.
- Blackman, R. L. and V. F. Eastop. 1984. Aphids on the World's Crops: An Identification Guide. Wiley. 466 p.
- Blackman, R. L. and V. F. Eastop. 1994. Aphids on the World's Trees: An Identification and Information Guide.
CAB Internat. 987 p. 16 pls.
- Iharco, F./ A. and A. van Harten. 1987. Systematics. p. 51-77. InA. K. Minks and P. Harrewijn.
Aphids: Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests Vol. 2A. Elsevier. 450 p.
- Kosztarab, M. 1996. Scale Insects of Northeastern North America. Va. Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ. No. 3. 650 p.
- Nault, L. R. and J. G. Rodriguez (eds.) 1985. The Leafhoppers and Planthoppers. Wiley. 500 p.
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