The Role of Pesticides in IPM
Pesticides in the news!
Los Angeles Times Article, printed by Roanoke Times 30 Mar 2012
suspected in mass die-offs of bees"
probe of Portland bee deaths finds ... banned chemical" 24
Is this CCD?
control efforts in South Carolina kill millions of bees"
Sep 16, 2016
for IGR in microcephaly? 15 Feb 2016
I. Introduction to IPM
- A. IPM Defined:
- 1. Use of all available tactics
- 2. Suppress populations below economically damaging level.
- B. Thresholds
- 1. Economic injury level
- 2. Economic threshold (action threshold)
- C. Tactics
- 1. Biological control
- 2. Host plant resistance (NCSU link
on size-controlling rootstocks)
- a. woolly apple aphid
- b. propensity for burrknot
- 3. Cultural control (page numbers refer to 2017 Field
Crops PMG pdf linked here)
- a. planting date and apple
- b. harvest
date and alfalfa (alfalfa weevil, p 4-5, p 4-10 potato
- c. planting
date and small grains (cereal leaf beetle - p 4-52)
- d. crop
corn rootworm (p 4-32 - 4-33 (see 4-33))
- e. harvest date and olive
- f. fall removal of crop
- i. alfalfa (p
4-6) - alfalfa weevil
- ii. apple
- iii. strawberry
- sap beetle
- iv. berry
crops - spotted wing drosophila
- 4. Mechanical control
- a. Hand-picking
- b. netting (e.g. periodical
- 5. Chemical control
- a. Advantages of pesticides
- i. Cost
- ii. Spectrum of activity
- iii. Ease of application
- b. Disadvantages of Pesticides
- i. Cost
- ii. Spectrum of activity (non-target effects)
- iii. Induction of secondary pests (older vs. newer
- iv. Resistance
- v. Pollinator risk
- vi. Applicator safety
- vii. Consumer safety
- D. Reasons for adoption of IPM
II. Pest classification and
effect on economic injury level
- A. Pests causing direct
- B. Key vs. secondary pests
- Other uses of "secondary"?
- C. Feeding injury vs. disease relationship
- D. Feeding injury vs export considerations
- A. Ecological Selectivity - e.g. Timing (e.g. pyrethroids),
- B. Physiological Selectivity - Pesticide spectrum of activity
- Tables from Spray Bulletin for Commercial Tree Fruit Growers:
IV. Environmental impacts of
- A. Environmental EIL approach
- 1. References:
- a. Pedigo, L. P. & L . G. Higley. 1992. The
economic injury level concept and environmental quality. Am.
Entomol. 38: 12-21
- b. Higley, L. G. & W. K. Wintersteen. 1992. A
novel approach to environmental risk assessment of
pesticides as a basis for incorporating environmental costs
into economic injury levels. Am. Entomol. 38: 34-39.)
- B. Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ)
- 1. References
- a. Kovach, J., C. Petzoldt, J. Degni & J. Tette.
1992. A method to measure the environmental impact of
pesticides. N.Y. Food & Life Sci. Bull. 139: 8 p.
- b. Dushoff, J., B. Caldwell & C. L. Mohler.
1994. Evaluating the environmental effect of pesticides: A
critique of the environmental impact quotient. Am. Entomol.
- c. Levitan, L., I. Merwin & J. Kovach. 1995.
Assessing the relative environmental impacts of agricultural
pesticides: The quest for a holistic method. Agric. Ecosyst.
Environ. 55: 153-168.)
V. History of Pesticide Use and
Impact on IPM (Pesticide
Updated 28 February 2017