The Role of Pesticides in IPM
Pesticides in the news!
Los Angeles Times Article, printed by Roanoke Times 30 Mar 2012
suspected in mass die-offs of bees"
I. Introduction to IPM
- A. IPM Defined:
- 1. Use of all available tactics
- 2. Suppress populations below economically damaging level.
- B. Thresholds
- 1. Economic injury level
- 2. Economic threshold (action threshold)
- C. Tactics
- 1. Biological control
- d. entomopathogenic nematodes (Cornell
- 2. Host plant resistance (NCSU link
on size-controlling rootstocks)
- a. woolly apple aphid
- b. propensity for burrknot
- 3. Cultural control (page numbers refer to 2013 Field
Crops PMG pdf linked here)
- a. planting date and apple
- b. harvest
date and alfalfa (alfalfa weevil, p 4-5, p 4-9 potato
- c. planting
date and small grains (cereal leaf beetle - p 4-52)
- d. crop
corn rootworm (p 4-32 - 4-33)
- e. harvest date and olive
- f. fall removal of crop
- i. alfalfa (p
4-9) - alfalfa weevil
- ii. apple
- iii. strawberry
- 4. Mechanical control
- a. Hand-picking
- b. netting (e.g. periodical
- 5. Chemical control
- a. Advantages of pesticides
- i. Cost
- ii. Spectrum of activity
- iii. Ease of application
- b. Disadvantages of Pesticides
- i. Cost
- ii. Spectrum of activity (non-target effects)
- iii. Induction of secondary pests (older vs. newer
- iv. Resistance
- v. Pollinator risk
- vi. Applicator safety
- vii. Consumer safety
- D. Reasons for adoption of IPM
II. Pest classification and
effect on economic injury level
- A. Pests causing direct
- B. Key vs. secondary pests
- Other uses of "secondary"?
- C. Feeding injury vs. disease relationship
- D. Feeding injury vs export considerations
- A. Ecological Selectivity - e.g. Timing (e.g. pyrethroids),
- B. Physiological Selectivity - Pesticide spectrum of activity
- Tables from Spray Bulletin for Commercial Tree Fruit Growers:
IV. Environmental impacts of
- A. Environmental EIL approach
- 1. References:
- a. Pedigo, L. P. & L . G. Higley. 1992. The
economic injury level concept and environmental quality. Am.
Entomol. 38: 12-21
- b. Higley, L. G. & W. K. Wintersteen. 1992. A
novel approach to environmental risk assessment of
pesticides as a basis for incorporating environmental costs
into economic injury levels. Am. Entomol. 38: 34-39.)
- B. Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ)
- 1. References
- a. Kovach, J., C. Petzoldt, J. Degni & J. Tette.
1992. A method to measure the environmental impact of
pesticides. N.Y. Food & Life Sci. Bull. 139: 8 p.
- b. Dushoff, J., B. Caldwell & C. L. Mohler.
1994. Evaluating the environmental effect of pesticides: A
critique of the environmental impact quotient. Am. Entomol.
- c. Levitan, L., I. Merwin & J. Kovach. 1995.
Assessing the relative environmental impacts of agricultural
pesticides: The quest for a holistic method. Agric. Ecosyst.
Environ. 55: 153-168.)
V. History of Pesticide Use and
Impact on IPM (Pesticide
Updated 2 March 2015