II. Hosts: Like most stink bugs, BMSB has a wide host range. It is important to consider the hosts on which bugs develop. For example, brown stink bug (BSB), Euschistus servus, uses tree fruit for a feeding host for adults, but the nymphal stage is found elsewhere - on herbaceous hosts like soybean and weeds. BMSB will use tree fruits and grapevines as reproductive hosts. Therefore, injury is inflicted by all stages after the egg stage.
III. Description: This species is
larger than the BSB,
about 3/4 inch long. The brown background contains tiny flecks
of light color, and the antennae and legs possess white bands,
unlike BSB. There is also a pattern of alternating dark
and white spots on the edges of the abdomen. The nymph as a dark colored abdomen
with red marking on the back. The term "marmorated" refers to the marbled
pattern of coloring, with flecks of white interspersed with the
background of brown.
IV. Biology: This species is new to the mid-Atlantic area, and even some questions of basic biology need to be clarified. In its native China, there are 2-6 generations. It appear that there are two in our area, though workers in NJ thought it likely to have a single generation there. BMSB has a host range of about 300 species. Unlike some stink bugs, which use some fruit crops only as feeding hosts, undergoing nymphal development on herbaceous hosts like soybean and weeds, BMSB used tree fruits and grapevines as reproductive hosts, therefore nymphs cause feeding injury in addition to adults. Adults overwinter in protected places, often invading houses in large numbers. This is another aspect of its pest status, becoming a severe nuisance. In New Jersey, it has been reported to now be the most abundant stink bug collected.
V. Injury: Injury in tree fruits
can be severe, exceeding 25% (individual blocks have been
estimated to have much higher levels of fruit injury).
Externally, fruit may have multiple reddish dents at feeding
sites, resembling hail strikes. Upon cutting into fruit,
corky areas are seen in the flesh of the fruit (example 1: external, internal. example 2: external, internal). Peach and
nectarine flesh begin to break down. In vineyards, a
unique problem is posed. Stink bugs may be harvested along with clusters and be
transported to the winery in lugs or bins, where the wine can be
imparted with a "stink bug taint". Research is underway to
test short-residual insecticides to knock down BMSB from
clusters at harvest. In addition to potential impact of
wine quality, BMSB will feed directly on grape berries, causing
a progressive necrosis of berries (see video of BMSB
feeding grape and a YouTube
video created by Sanjay Basnet, VT).
In addition to its status as a pest of fruit
and other crops, BMSB has become a domestic pest in autumn, in
its native Asia as well as the U.S. Adult bugs appear on
the south and west sides of dwellings, seeking a protected place
in which to overwinter. Hundreds of bugs may reach the
interior rooms, creating a nuisance with their activity and
their scent. More information on this aspect of BMSB is
given in the Virginia Tech fact
VI. Monitoring: Monitoring for BMSB
should include direct examinations for adults and nymphs, as
well as for injured fruit. Action thresholds have not been
for BMSB have not been identified, thought it responds to
pheromone components of another stink bug species.
Use of pheromone traps for monitoring of BMSB
is an ungoing research topic.
Control: Chemical control:
Pyrethroids provide fairly effective control of BMSB, however
even these pesticides may fail to control immigrating stink bugs
after a few days. In addition, summer applications of
pyrethroids are associated with outbreaks of secondary pests
such as mites in orchards and mealybugs in vineyards.
Some neonicotinoids such as dinotefuran and clothianidin
are also effective in the short term. Since this is such a
new pest in our area, control studies are still in
progress. In grape
harvest, where residual control is not needed, Belay
(clothianidin) and PyGanic (pyrethrins) have successfully
reduced BMSB in grapevines; that latter material is not expected
to provide residual control, however. See the note
on BMSB in the 2014 Spray
Bulletin for Commercial Tree Fruit Growers (p 75, Apple
A section 18
request for dinotefuran to combat brown marmorated stink bug on
pome and stone fruits was announced
on 30 June 2011.
VDACS released an announcement regarding this approval on June
29. This Section 18 use was renewed for 2012 and 2013, and
was active through 15 October 2013. Venom (label, MSDS) and Scorpion (label, MSDS) are the two approved commercial
products of dinotefuran. Dinotefuran has a 3-day PHI on
tree fruits. See the Section 18 labels for Venom and Scorpion. You
should be in possession of these if the products are used.
At the same time, an organically-approved product containing
azadiracthin and pyrethrins was approved for BMSB by EPA.
label for Azera may be
found here. Label rates of Azera range from 1 to 3.5
pts/acre. While a specific rate is not provided for BMSB,
the label recommends 3-3.5 oz/A for high pest populations and
difficult to control pests. Residual life of Azera is
expected to be short. Azera may be used up to the day of
harvest. All of these products have very low mammalian
toxicity; however, all are highly toxic to honey bees, and care
is needed around bees.
The following links may be used for chemical
Spray Bulletin for Commercial Tree Fruit Growers (html)
Pest Management Guide for Commercial Vineyards (html)
Pest Management Guide for Commercial Small Fruit (html)
Pest Management Guide for Home Fruit (html)
Biological control: There are natural
enemies that attack native stink bugs, but many of these have
limited success attacking BMSB. A scelionid wasp native to
China, Trissolcus japonicus (formerly known as T.
halyomorphae), has been reported to have high
parasitization rates, and is now in quarantine for research in
the US. An excellent video
has been posted by Oregon State University researchers
showing mating, oviposition and emergence behavior of this
Research: There are currently two multi-state
research projects on brown marmorated stink bug. One is an
SCRI project, the other deals with organic management of
BMSB. Check the web
site for progress in organic management of BMSB. (housed
Virginia Tech has a fact sheet (PDF version), as does Penn State University - fact sheet posted (PDF version) and Rutgers University. A working group on organic management of BMSB has been established, with their own web site. There is opportunity to participate in grower forums. See the new Stop BMSB Web Site, StopBMSB.org!
Day, E. R., T. McCoy, D. Miller, T.
P. Kuhar and D. G. Pfeiffer. 2011. Brown marmorated
stink bug, Hemiptera, Pentatomidae: Halyomorpha halys. Va. Coop. Ext.
Hamilton, G. C. 2011. Biology and current spread of the brown marmorated stink bug in North America. Rutgers Univ. and Northeast IPM Center. http://www.northeastipm.org/neipm/assets/File/BMSB%20Resources/ESA%20Eastern%20Branch%202011/03-Biology-and-Current-Spread-of-the-Brown-Marmorated-Stink-Bug-in-North-America.pdf.
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