Insecticides - VA-WV-MD Spray Bulletin for Commercial Tree Fruit Growers


Updated 13 March 2014

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ABAMECTIN (ABBA, AGRI-MEK, TEMPRANO) is an insecticide/miticide formulated as a 0.15EC and a 0.7SC. Agri-Mek is registered for use in both pome fruit (spider mites, spotted tentiform leafminer, white apple leafhopper, pear psylla, pear rust mite) and stone fruit (spider mites), while Abba and Temprano are registered for use in pome fruit and plums.  Because of resistance problems commonly associated with many of these pests, abamectin should be rotated with other materials and must not be applied more than twice per season. The label rate for the 0.15EC formulation is 2.5 – 5.5 fl oz/100 gal, or 10 – 20 fl oz/acre, and a 40 fl oz/acre seasonal maximum. The rate for the 0.7SC product is 0.5 – 1.0 fl oz/100 gal, or 2.25 – 4.25 fl oz/acre, with a seasonal maximum of 4.25 fl oz /acre. Do not apply in less than 40 gal of water per acre. See label restrictions on spraying near bodies of water. Always apply these products in combination with horticultural spray oil (not a dormant oil) or a non-ionic surfactant that spreads on and/or penetrates the leaf cuticle, at a rate of 0.25% or not less than 1 gal per acre. Although other surfactants may be used, control is not as effective as with oils. While abamectin poses no incompatibility problems, be aware of compatibility problems involving oils. Proper timing is important, since the material must be absorbed by young foliage; recommended timing is within two weeks after petal fall on apples and pears. Restrictions: REI = 12 hours, PHI = 28 days for pome fruit, 21 days for stone fruit.

ACEQUINOCYL (KANEMITE) is a naphthoquinone derivative acaricide registered for the control of European red mite and twospotted spider mite on apple and pear. Formulated as a 15SC (suspension concentrate), it is used at the rate of 31 fl oz per acre. Kanemite acts as a mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor (METI), blocking cellular respiration, but at a different site than other compounds. Activity occurs primarily by contact and secondarily by ingestion. Kanemite should be applied at mite threshold, and rotated with acaricides having different modes of action to minimize development of resistance.  It has been classified by EPA as a reduced risk compound.  REI = 12 hours; PHI = 14 days.

ACETAMIPRID (ASSAIL) is a member of the neonicotinoid class of chemicals with registration on pone and stone fruits.  It has translaminar systemic activity and controls pests by contact and ingestion.  Like other members of this chemical class, Assail is very effective against aphids, leafhoppers, leafminers, and pear psylla, but is unique in also providing control of internal worms.  Available as a 35SG, it may be applied during the prebloom, bloom and postbloom periods at rates of 2.5 to 8.0 oz per acre, depending upon insect species.  Direct spray contact is toxic to bees, but residues are not.  Use is limited to a maximum of 4 applications and 32 oz of product per acre per season, with a minimum finished spray volume of 80 gallons per acre.  REI = 12 hours; PHI = 7 days.

AZADIRACHTIN ( AZA-DIRECT, NEEMAZAD, NEEMIX) is a biological insecticide derived from nuts of the neem tree that is registered for the control of a variety of pests on all pome and stone fruits. This product is formulated as 0.082 lb (Neemazad), 0.0987 lb (Aza-Direct), or 0.34 lb (Neemix) of azadirachtin per gallon. Azadirachtin controls target pests on contact or by ingestion and acts by way of repellance, antifeedance, and interference with the molting process. These products are listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) as options for organic pest management. The application rate ranges from 4 to 72 oz per acre, depending upon the product and target pest. Azadirachtin has demonstrated good to excellent control of rosy apple aphids, plant bugs, spotted tentiform leafminer, codling moth and oriental fruit moth. REI = 4 hours; PHI = 0 days.

BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS is a bacterial insecticide formulated as a wettable powder and as an aqueous concentrate. It may be recommended in combination with either an adjuvant or another insecticide, so read the label very carefully. Generally speaking, B.t. (various trade names) is most effective against newly hatched caterpillars. Death is slow because the material must be ingested and the biological action completed within the insectÕs gut before death occurs; however, larvae soon cease feeding after ingesting B.t. Rates are given on the label for each specific formulation. B.t. is particularly useful if an insecticide is required to control gypsy moth during bloom.  REI = 4 hours; PHI = 0 days.

BETA-CYFLUTHRIN (BAYTHROID XL) is a pyrethroid insecticide formulated as a 1EC and registered for control of many pests of pome and stone fruits. Application rates range from 1.4 to 2.8 fl oz per acre, depending upon the targeted pest(s). Baythroid XL is limited to a seasonal maximum of 2.8 fl oz per acre on apple and pear, and 5.6 fl oz per acre on stone fruits. It is important to note that use of the high rate of Baythroid will preclude the use of other products containing either beta-cyfluthrin (Leverage 3SE; see write-up) or the closely related compound, cyfluthrin (Tombstone; see write-up) in the same season, since the seasonal maximum allowances for beta-cyfluthrin and cyfluthrin are cumulative. Do not apply more than the combined maximum seasonal total for both active ingredients. The minimum water volume for application is 100 gal per acre on pome fruit and 50 gal per acre on stone fruit. As with other pyrethroids, postbloom use may cause outbreaks of mites and secondary pests. Restrictions: REI = 12 hours, PHI = 7 days.

BIFENAZATE (ACRAMITE) is a 50WS acaricide registered for mite control on apple, pear, peach, nectarine, cherry, plum and prune.  It is effective against all stages of two-spotted spider mites and motile stages of European red mites.  While Acramite has activity against peach silver mite, it will not control apple and pear rust mites.  It should be applied at 12-16 oz per acre, only once per year, in a minimum of 50 gallons of water per acre.  The product provides quick knockdown through contact activity and long residual control.  Acramite is not systemic, therefore thorough coverage of both upper and lower leaf surfaces is necessary for effective control.  It would fit best for summer use at a low mite threshold in a rotation program with other acaricides.  REI = 12 hours; PHI = 7 days (pome fruits), 3 days (stone fruits).

BIFENTHRIN (BIFENTURE) is a 2EC pyrethroid insecticide registered for the control of numerous insect and mite species on pear. Rate of application is 2.6 to 12.8 fl oz (0.04 to 0.2 lb ai) per acre. The seasonal maximum is 0.5 lb ai per acre, with no more than 0.45 lb ai per acre applied after petal fall. REI of 12 hours; PHI of 14 days.

BUPROFEZIN (CENTAUR) is an insect growth regulator registered for use on stone and pome fruits.  Formulated as a 70WDG, Centaur is labeled for the control of scales, leafhoppers, and pear psylla.  The active ingredient acts as a chitin biosynthesis inhibitor, and therefore has primary activity on the nymphal stages of these pests.  Although adult insects are not controlled, there is some reduction in egg laying and viability of eggs.  Insect uptake of Centaur is primarily through contact, with some vaporization for a period of time after application.  Centaur is to be applied at 34.5 oz/acre, with a maximum per year of one application on apple, and two applications on pear and stone fruits.  REI = 12 hours; PHI =  14 days.

CARBARYL (SEVIN) is formulated as a 50W and 80S powder and used at the rate of from 1.0 to 2.0 lb per 100 gal of spray. Carbaryl is highly effective in codling moth and Japanese beetle control. It is somewhat effective on several other insects, including aphids and leafrollers. Carbaryl reduces fruit set on some varieties of apple when applied within 30 days of bloom, and it is suggested as a chemical fruit thinner on Red Delicious, Winesap, and Rome. Mite populations have a tendency to increase following carbaryl sprays because of suppression of predatory species. Because of its low mammalian toxicity, carbaryl is one of the few insecticides that can be used to within 3 days of harvest. New formulations that are less toxic to honey bees, such as Sevin-XLR Plus, are available. Such formulations have increased residual activity.  REI = 12 hours; PHI = 3 days.

CHLORANTRANILIPROLE (ALTACOR) is registered on pome and stone fruits for the control of Lepidopteran insects and European apple sawfly, with suppression of apple maggot, cherry fruit fly, plum curculio and white apple leafhopper. Altacor is a member of the anthranilic diamide class of insecticides with a novel mode of action on insect ryanodine receptors. It has some contact activity, but is most effective through ingestion of treated plant surfaces. Insects exposed to Altacor will rapidly stop feeding, become paralyzed, and die within 1-3 days. Altacor has provided outstanding control of internal worms (codling moth, oriental fruit moth) and leafrollers in numerous tests conducted in the mid-Atlantic region. Available as a 35WG, rate of application is 2.5-4.5 oz per acre on pome fruits and 3-4.5 oz per acre on stone fruits in a minimum of 100 gal of water per acre. Do not use an adjuvant in combination with Altacor on cherries or within 60 days of harvest on pome fruits. For resistance management, make no more than 3 successive applications per generation of insect species, and treat the following generation with a product having a different mode of action. REI =  4; PHI = 5 days (pome fruits), 10 days (stone fruits).

CHLORPYRIFOS (LORSBAN, NUFOS, YUMA) is available in several formulations registered for use as a foliar application in the dormant or delayed dormant period against aphids and scale in apples, scale in stone fruits and pear psylla in pears. One application of chlorpyrifos is allowed per season in apples, regardless of the formulation used or the pest(s) targeted for control. The liquid Lorsban formulations (Advanced 3.8E and 4E) contain slightly different amounts of chlorpyrifos but have identical rate ranges. Lorsban Advanced contains less volatile organic compounds (VOC) and therefore is a low-odor formulation. All formulations are registered for use as a trunk drench application against peachtree and lesser peachtree borers in peaches, nectarines and cherries. A single trunk drench spray per season is permitted in peaches and nectarines and up to three drench applications in cherry. A handgun application of 100 gallons should treat 75 to 100 large trees or 100 to 125 small trees. Prevent spray contact with fruit and do not use within 14 days of harvest on bearing trees. Good results for both species have been obtained when the material was applied immediately after harvest.All formulations are registered for use as a post-bloom trunk drench spray against dogwood borer in apples. The recommended rate for control of dogwood borer is 1.5 qt (3.8E or 4E) or 2 lb (75WG) per 100 gal water. Use restrictions include a single application only to the lower 4 ft of the trunk from a distance of not more than 4 ft, using low-volume or shielded spray equipment. Spray contact with fruit and foliage is prohibited and application must not be made within 28 days of harvest. A single application during prebloom or early postbloom will effectively control dogwood borer. 
REI = 96 hours; See Table 26 for PHI.

CLOFENTEZINE (APOLLO) (42% suspension concentrate) is registered on apple, pear, peach, nectarine and cherry, for European red mite and twospotted spider mite. Apollo is effective against eggs and very young mites. If active mites are present, include another miticide for control. Use at 4-8 fl oz per acre or 1-2 fl oz per 100 gal. Apply only one application per season up to 45 days before harvest on apple and at first sign of mite activity on other crops.  REI = 12 hours; PHI = 45 days (apples), 21 days (all others).

CLOTHIANIDIN (BELAY) is a neonicotinoid insecticide registered for use on pome fruit and peaches. Formulated as a 2.13SC, Belay is labeled at 4 to 12 fl oz per acre in pome fruits for aphids, leafhoppers, leafminers, plum curculio, apple maggot, codling moth, pear psylla, scale, plant bugs and stink bugs. In peaches, Belay is labeled at 3 to 6 fl oz per acre for aphids. Leafhoppers, scale, plum curculio, plant bugs and stink bugs.  The seasonal maximum per acre is 12 fl oz.  Restrictions: REI = 12 hours, PHI = 7 days in pome fruit and 21 days in peaches.

codling moth granulovirus (cyd-x) is an insecticidal virus for control of codling moth larvae and is registered on apple, pear, plum and walnut. This group of viruses has been found only in invertebrates and they do not infect vertebrates or plants. Cyd-X must be ingested to be effective. The virus spreads from gut cells to other tissues, killing larvae in 3 to 7 days, depending on dosage and temperature. Dead larvae eventually disintegrate and release billions of new infectious units, which can infect other larvae. Timing Cyd-X sprays to target young larvae at the beginning of each generation is important. Two applications per generation, at a rate of 3-6 fl oz per acre, are recommended. Cyd-X should be refrigerated or frozen during storage and continuous exposure to temperatures above 90°F can inactivate the product. Both materials are listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) and approved for organic production.  REI = 4 hours; PHI = 0 days.

CYFLUTHRIN (TOMBSTONE) is a pyrethroid registered for the control of many fruit pests on apple, pear and all stone fruits. Formulated as a 1EC, application rates range from 1.4 to 2.8 fl oz per acre, depending upon insect species. Tombstone is limited to a season maximum of 2.8 fl oz per acre on apple and pear, and 5.6 fl oz per acre on stone fruits. It is important to note that use of the high rate of Tombstone will preclude the use of other products containing the closely related compound beta-cyfluthrin (Baythroid 1EC or Leverage 3SE; see write-ups) in the same season, since the seasonal maximum allowances for beta-cyfluthrin and cyfluthrin are cumulative. Do not apply more than the combined seasonal maximum for both active ingredients. The minimum water volume for ground application is 100 gal per acre on apple and pear, and 50 gal per acre on stone fruits. As with other pyrethroids, postbloom use is likely to cause outbreaks of mites and secondary pests. REI = 12-hours; PHI = 7-days.

DELTAMETHRIN (BATTALION) is a pyrethroid registered for use on apple and pear for the control of a broad spectrum of insect pests. Battalion is formulated as a 0.2EC for application at rates of 7.0 to 14.1 fl oz per acre and as a 1.5EC for application at rates of 0.9 to 1.9 fl oz per acre. The highest rate of either product is recommended for controlling sawflies, lesser appleworm, cicada and stink bugs. The season maximum is 26.9 fl oz per acre for Battalion and 3.6 fl oz per acre for Decis. Outbreaks of mites and secondary pests are likely following postbloom use of either product. REI = 12-hour; PHI = 21-day.

DIAZINON is formulated as a 50W powder and 4E liquid, and used at the rate of 1.0 lb and 1.0 pt per 100 gal of spray. This organophosphate insecticide is registered for control of many tree fruit insects. The 4E formulation (AG500) is only registered on stone fruits. It is moderately toxic to mammals. It has demonstrated efficacy in control of rosy apple aphid, San Jose scale and woolly apple aphid.  REI = 96 hours; PHI = 21 days.

DIFLUBENZURON (DIMILIN) is a chitin biosynthesis inhibitor, disrupting the molting process.  It is registered on pear for control of pear psylla and suppression of codling moth.  Control of pear psylla is greatest prebloom, and should be timed to oviposition periods; thereafter suppression only may be achieved.  It may be applied post bloom, but avoid combinations with oil in such applications.  It is also effective against codling moth.  It is formulated as a 2L and a 25W product, and recommended at 40-48 fl oz and 2.5-3 lb per acre, respectively.  Delayed dormant applications should include a horticultural mineral oil at the rate of 4-6 gallons per acre.  After delayed dormant, through popcorn stage, add oil at 0.25%, not to exceed 1 gallon per acre.  Do not make more than four applications per season, or exceed 64 fl oz per acre per year.  REI = 12 hours; PHI = 14 days.


dinotefuran (venom and scorpion) is a neonicotinoid insecticide registered for use on peaches and nectarines for control of stink bugs and plum curculio, among others. Venom is formulated as a 70SG and is labeled for use at 2 -4 oz per acre, while Scorpion is formulated as a 35SL and used at rates from 3.5 – 7 fl oz per acre, depending on the target pest.  A seasonal maximum of 8 oz of Venom and 10.5 fl oz of Scorpion can be applied per acre. While having utility at these rates against plum curculio, possibly the native stink bugs and a few others, the highest rate labeled for both products may not provide adequate protection from brown marmorated stink bug.  For this reason, both products have received a Section 18 Emergency Exemption for use in pome and stone fruit each year since 2011. The Section 18 label permits their use at rates higher than those described above, specifically to manage injury from brown marmorated stink bug, but must be renewed before each growing season. Contact your Extension Specialist to confirm whether a Section 18 label has been granted for the upcoming season before using these products in pome fruit or before using them in peaches and nectarines at the higher rates. REI = 12 hours; PHI = 3 days.


EMAMECTIN BENZOATE (PROCLAIM) is registered on apple and pear for the control of spotted tentiform leafminer and various leafroller species, and suppression of internal worms (codling moth, oriental fruit moth, lesser appleworm), pear psylla, and spider mites. It acts by interfering with the neurotransmitters in insects, which results in a loss of cell function and disruption of nerve impulses. Proclaim has translaminar systemic activity and provides control primarily through ingestion, with limited contact activity for a short period after application. Formulated as a 5SG, the application rate is 0.8 to 1.2 oz per 100 gal dilute and 3.2 to 4.8 oz per acre concentrate, with a season maximum of 14.4 oz per acre. Applications should be initiated at the beginning of egg hatch to target small larvae. Proclaim should be applied in a minimum of 40 gal of water per acre in combination with a horticultural spray oil or a nonionic surfactant (do not use a sticker/binder type adjuvant). Do not tank mix Proclaim with Bravo® Weather Stik®, Dithane®, Rainshield, or any other pesticide containing a sticker component in its formulation because this may drastically reduce pest control with Proclaim. Restrictions: REI = 48-hours; PHI = 14-days.

ENDOSULFAN (THIONEX) is an organochlorine insecticide formulated as a 50W and 3EC and registered for use in pome and stone fruits for controlling aphids, leafhoppers, plant bugs and stink bugs, peachtree borer and lesser peachtree borer. Recent uses of Thionex have primarily targeted peach borers (1.5 lb or 1 qt per 100 gal) and/or brown marmorated stink bug (2 lb or 1.33 qt per acre in pome fruit; 2 lb or 1.66 qt per acre in peaches, nectarines and sweet cherries). Do not use more than two applications during the fruiting period in apples and two applications per season in peaches. Seasonal maximum use per acre is 4 lb or 2.66 qt in pome fruit and 5 lb or 3.33 qt in stone fruits. Endosulfan is highly poisonous and must be used with caution. Due to concerns about worker health and safety and environmental effects of endosulfan use, a phase-out of the product will end all uses in stone fruit on July 31, 2012, in pear on July 31, 2013 and in apple on July 31, 2015. Tolerances for the use of pomace from endosulfan treated fruit were established in 2011, resulting in the elimination of this restriction. The REI is 7 days and 20 days for the EC and WP formulations, respectively and the PHI is 21 days.

ESFENVALERATE (ADJOURN, ASANA XL) is a pyrethroid insecticide registered for use on apple, peach, and pear. Esfenvalerate is formulated as a 0.66 EC; it provides broad-spectrum insect control at low rates of application. Esfenvalerate is also highly toxic to beneficial insects. Postbloom application usually results in a severe mite outbreak. Esfenvalerate is only recommended for the prebloom control of pear psylla on pear. On apple, it is recommended for prebloom insect control and is occasionally used for late season (after mid-August) control of leafrollers and internal worms in blocks with low mite populations.  REI = 12 hours; PHI = 21 days (apple), 28 days (pear), 14 days (stone fruits).

ETOXAZOLE (ZEAL) is an acaricide/ovicide registered for mite control on pome and stone fruits. It is a growth regulator that inhibits the molting process through disruption of the cell membrane. It acts as an ovicide, stops the development of immature mite stages and sterilizes adult mites. Since Zeal does not kill adult mites it may take a week or more to cause a reduction in the mite population. Therefore, Zeal is best used in an early-season preventative approach or targeted against a low mite threshold. Formulated as a 72WDG, it is labeled for use at 2 to 3 oz per acre. One and two applications per season are permitted in pome and stone fruits, respectively, with maximum seasonal use of 3 oz in pome fruits and 6 oz per acre in stone fruit fruits. Zeal must not be used with an adjuvant or surfactant on stone fruits. REI = 12-hours, PHI = 14-day PHI (pome fruits), 7-days (stone fruits).

FENBUTATIN OXIDE (VENDEX) is an acaricide recommended in the 50W formulation; a 4L is also available. It is effective against European red mite and twospotted spider mite, though relatively safe for predatory mites. Rates are 4-8 oz./100 gal., or 1-2 lb. per acre concentrate (1-3 lb. in apple). On apple and pear, do not apply more than 4 sprays/season; on peach, plum, prune and cherry, not more than two sprays.  REI = 48-hours; PHI = 14 days.

FENPROPATHRIN (DANITOL) is a pyrethroid insecticide-miticide registered as a 2.4EC (emulsifiable concentrate) for use on pome and stone fruits. It provides broad-spectrum insect control and has demonstrated activity against spider mites. Because it is also highly toxic to beneficial insects, its use in the post-bloom period can still result in mites outbreaks, depending upon the mite population level and the number of applications. In apple and pear, Danitol is currently recommended primarily for prebloom use and possibly for use late season (after mid-August) on apple for control of leafrollers, internal worms and stink bugs. In peach, Danitol is recommended for use in the prebloom through first cover. Applications are to be applied in a minimum of 100 gpa in both pome and stone fruits, at a rate of 10.7-21.3 fl oz/A and not to exceed 42.7 fl oz/A per season. REI = 24-hours; PHI = 14 days (pome fruits), 3 days (stone fruits).

FENPYROXIMATE (PORTAL) is a contact acaricide/insecticide registered on apple and pear for the control of various mite species, white apple leafhopper, and pear psylla. Like Nexter, its mode of action is to block cellular respiration by acting as a mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor (METI). It also acts to inhibit molting of immature stages. Mite feeding and oviposition stop soon after application, with death occurring in 4-7 days. Formulated as a 5EC, Portal is used at the rate of 2 pints per acre. It should not be applied more than once per season, and should be rotated with products having a different mode of action where additional control is needed.  REI = 12-hours; PHI = 14 days.

FLONICAMID (BELEAF) is a pyridinecarboxamide that is registered on all pome and stone fruits for the control of aphids and tarnished plant bug. It functions as a potassium channel blocker and acts through contact and ingestion to stop feeding, resulting in starvation. There is also some translaminar and systemic movement of the product into treated plant surfaces. Formulated as a 50SG, the application rate is 2.0 to 2.8 oz per acre in a minimum of 50 gallons of water per acre. A maximum of 3 applications and 8.4 oz per acre per season is permitted. REI = 12-hours; PHI = 14 days (stone fruits), 21 days (pome fruits).

FLUBENDIAMIDE (BELT) insecticide is registered for use on pome and stone fruits for the control of Lepidopteran larvae. Belt belongs to the phthalic acid diamide chemical class, and is primarily active through larval ingestion by causing a disruption of calcium balance in insect muscle cells, resulting in rapid paralysis. Formulated as a 4SC (suspension concentrate), application rate ranges from 3-5 fl oz per acre on pome fruits (100 GPA minimum spray volume), and 3-4 fl oz per acre on stone fruits (50 GPA minimum spray volume). Because Belt is chemically related to Altacor, these two products should not be rotated against successive generations of the same Lepidopteran pest in order to avoid the development of resistance. Restrictions include a seasonal maximum of 3 applications and 15 fl oz per acre on pome fruits and 12 fl oz per acre on stone fruits; REI = 12 hours; PHI = 14 days (pome fruits), 7 days (stone fruits).


FLUBENDIAMIDE AND BUPROFEZIN (TOURISMO) are combined in a 3.5SC (suspension concentrate) formulation providing a broader spectrum of activity than either ingredient alone. Registered for use in all pome and stone fruits during the post-bloom period, the product targets primarily lepidopteran larvae and leafhoppers and will provide suppression of San Jose scale. For details on the spectrum of pests targeted by these pre-mix formulations, see the information provided for each active ingredient. Complete sprays are recommended, using a minimum of 100 gpa in pome fruit and 50 gpa in stone fruit. Application rates are 15-17 fl oz/A in pome fruit and 10-14 fl oz/A in stone fruit, with seasonal maximums of 46 fl oz/A and 37 fl oz/A in pome and stone fruits, respectively. REI = 12-hours, PHI = 14-days.

FORMETANATE HYDROCHLORIDE (CARZOL 92SP) is registered for use on apple, pear, peach, and nectarine. It cannot be applied after petal fall on apple or pear, or after shuck fall on peach and nectarine. Pests controlled and label rates per 100 gal of water are: Apple tentiform leafminer (4-5 oz), white apple leafhopper (2-4 oz). Apple and pear European red mite and twospotted spider mite (4-8 oz). Pear pear rust mite (4 oz). Peach tarnished plant bug and stink bug (4 oz). Peach and nectarine European red mite and twospotted spider mite (4 oz). Total seasonal applications are limited to 1.25 lb/A. Carzol is not stable in alkaline solution and should be mixed just prior to use. Do not mix more than can be sprayed in four hours. Measure pH after all materials have been added to spray tank. Adjust with appropriate adjuvant if necessary.  See Table 26 for REI and PHI.

GAMMA-CYHALOTHRIN (DECLARE, PROAXIS) is a pyrethroid insecticide formulated as a 1.25CS and 0.5CS for controlling many pest insects on pome and stone fruits.  Declare is labeled for use at 1.02 to 2.05 fl oz per acre, with a seasonal maximum of 10.2 fl oz per acre and not more than 8.2 fl oz per acre in the post-bloom period.  Proaxis is labeled for use at 2.56 to 5.12 fl oz per acre, with a seasonal maximum of 25.6 fl oz per acre and not more than 20.5 fl oz per acre in the post-bloom period. It is important to note that use of products containing gamma-cyhalothrin will influence the use of other products containing the closely related compound, lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior, Lambda-Cy, Silencer, Voliam Xpress, Endigo) in the same season, since the seasonal maximum allowances for gamma- and lambda-cyhalothrin are cumulative. Do not apply more than the combined seasonal maximum for both active ingredients. As with other pyrethroids, post-bloom use of these products may result in secondary pest outbreaks.  Restrictions: REI = 24 hours, PHI = 21 days for pome fruits and 14 days for stone fruits.

HEXYTHIAZOX (ONAGER, SAVEY) is an acaricide registered on apple, pear, peach, nectarine, cherry and apricot for the control of European red mite and twospotted spider mite. It has activity against eggs and very young mites, and should not be used in the same season as clofentezine (Apollo). Include another miticide if older mite stages are present. Hexythiazox is available as Savey 50 DFor Onager 1EC for use as a single application.  REI = 12-hours; PHI = 28 days

IMIDACLOPRID (ADMIRE PRO, PASADA) is a neonicotinoid insecticide registered for use on pome and stone fruit, formulated as a 4.6SC and a 1.6 F, respectively, for control of aphids (except woolly apple aphid), leafminers, San Jose scale, June beetle, Japanese beetle, plant bugs, cherry fruit fly, mealybugs and pear psylla. Application of these products is restricted to the post-bloom period and when bees are not foraging. The labeled application rate is 1.4 to 2.8 fl oz per acre for Admire Pro and 4.0 to 8.0 fl oz per acre for Pasada, although a higher rate of 7.0 oz per acre is allowed in pear, for control of mealybugs and psylla. Seasonal maximums allowances for Admire Pro are 14.0 fl oz per acre in pome fruit, cherries and plums, and 8.4 fl oz per acre in apricot, nectarine and peach. Seasonal allowances for Pasada are 40.0 fl oz per acre for pome fruit, cherries and plums, and 24.0 fl oz per acre in apricot, nectarine and peach. It is important to note that use of Leverage (see write-up) in the same season will influence the seasonal maximum imidacloprid allowance for these products. Minimum application interval is 10 day in pomer fruit and 7 days in stone fruit. Products containing imidacloprid may not be used in Lee County, VA, due to an endangered species restriction. Restrictions: REI = 12 hours, PHI = 7 days in pome fruit, cherries and plums, and 0 days in apricot, nectarines and peach.

IMIDACLOPRID and BETA-CYFLUTHRIN (LEVERAGE) are neonicotinoid and pyrethroid insecticides, respectively, that are pre-mixed in a suspension emulsion formulation that provides a broader spectrum of activity than either ingredient alone. Leverage 3SE is registered for use on all pome and stone fruits. Since the product contains imidacloprid, its use is restricted to the post-bloom period. Also containing a pyrethroid, use of this product in the post-bloom period may cause mites to flare. Apply in a minimum of 100 gpa in pome fruit and 50 gpa in stone fruit at 2.4-2.8 fl oz/A. Leverage 360 is limited to a seasonal maximum of 2.8 fl oz/A in pome fruits and 5.6 fl oz/A in stone fruits. For details on the spectrum of pests targeted by this formulation, see the information provided for each active ingredient.  It is important to note that use of Leverage may influence the use of other products containing the same active ingredients (Admire Pro, Pasada, Baythroid) or the closely related compound, cyfluthrin (Tombstone) in the same season. Do not apply more than the combined seasonal maximum for any of these active ingredients.  REI = 12-hours; PHI = 7 days

INDOXACARB (AVAUNT) is the first member of the oxadiazine class of chemicals registered for insect control on pome and stone fruits. It is primarily effective against various lepidoptera, but also has activity against selected insects of other types. Avaunt acts primarily through ingestion by inhibiting sodium ion entry into nerve cells, resulting in paralysis and death of the pest species. Avaunt results in rapid inhibition of insect feeding, pest knockdown within 1 to 2 days, and provides crop protection for 7 to 14 days. This product has low mammalian toxicity (caution label) and is intermediate between OP's and pyrethroids in toxicity to beneficial insects and mites. Avaunt is limited to a maximum of 4 applications per season and total of 24 oz per acre.  REI = 12-hours; PHI = 14 days.

KAOLIN (SURROUND WP) is a specialized mineral that has been shaped, sized and formulated for use as an insecticide on pome and stone fruits. Applications of 25-50 lbs per 100-200 gals per acre form a white "particle film" barrier on treated surfaces. Thorough coverage must be maintained by multiple applications, usually every 7-10 days, for effective control. Possible modes of action may include repellency, deterrence to egg-laying, irritation, physical barrier and non-recognition of host. Surround has demonstrated good to excellent activity against pear psylla, leafhoppers, plum curculio, apple maggot and Japanese beetle. It is certified for organic fruit production and is exempt from tolerance requirements. Surround WP has a 4 hr REI and may be applied up to harvest.  However, it should not be applied beyond fourth cover to fresh market fruit that will not be washed before sale, in order to minimize the particle film residue. Similarly, it should not be applied beyond second cover to processing fruit, due to the physical effects of residues on juice filtration systems. It should not be applied beyond fourth cover on fruit for the fresh market that will not be washed before sale, in order to minimize the particle film residue. Season-long programs of Sur-round WP have improved color and reduced cracking of Stayman, and have reduced sunburn damage to apple in hot climates. The specific size and shape of the mineral particles permits photosynthetically active radiation to reach the leaf surface so that photosynthesis in not reduced by the particle film barrier.

LAMBDA-CYHALOTHRIN (WARRIOR, LAMBDA-CY, SILENCER) is a pyrethroid registered for control of numerous insect species on all pome and stone fruits. It is available in two encapsulated suspension formulations (Warrior 1CS, Warrior II 2CS) and in two emulsifiable concentrate formulations (1EC, Lambda-Cy, Silencer). The application rate for Warrior II is 1.28 – 2.56 fl oz per acre (0.02-0.04 lb ai/acre), with a seasonal maximum of 12.8 fl oz per acre (0.2 lb ai/acre) and a postbloom maximum of 10.24 fl oz (0.16 lb ai/acre). For Warrior, Lambda-Cy and Silencer, apply at 2.56-5.12 fl oz per acre (0.02-0.04 lb ai/acre), with a seasonal maximum of 25.6 fl oz per acre (0.2 lb ai/acre) and a postbloom maximum of 20.48 fl oz per acre (0.16 lb ai/acre). Like other pyrethroids, postbloom use of this product is likely to result in a mite outbreak.  Do not apply within 21 days of harvest on pome fruits and 14 days of harvest on stone fruits.  This pyrethroid is a restricted use pesticide with a warning label, and it has a 24-hour restricted-entry interval (REI). See label regarding seasonal maximum if Proaxis is also included in spray program. It is important to note that use of products containing lamda-cyhalothrin will influence the use of other products containing the same active ingredient (Voliam Xpress, Endigo) and those containing the closely related compound, gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare, Proaxis) in the same season, since the seasonal maximum allowances for gamma- and lambda-cyhalothrin are cumulative. Do not apply more than the combined seasonal maximum for both active ingredients.  REI = 24-hours; PHI = 21 days (pome fruits), 14 days (stone fruits).

LAMBDA-CYHALOTHRIN AND CHLORANTRANILIPROLE (VOLIAM XPRESS) is a pre-mix combination of 4.63% lambda-cyhalothrin and 9.26% chlorantraniliprole, and is available as a 1.25SC. The combination of these two active ingredients enables Voliam xpress to provide broad spectrum control of over 25 sucking and chewing pests on pome fruits and over 15 pests on stone fruits. Application rate ranges from 6-12  fl. oz. per acre, with a seasonal maximum of four applications and 31 fl. oz. per acre. Apply in 75-150 gallons of water per acre, with a maximum of 200 gallons of water per acre for dilute applications. Do not use an adjuvant with Voliam xpress on cherries, nor within 60 days of harvest on pome fruits. Voliam xpress is highly toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment or to residues on blooming crops. Therefore, do not apply the product, or allow it to drift, to blooming crops or weeds while bees are foraging adjacent to the treated area. In addition, the pyrethroid insecticide in this pre-mix is considered highly toxic to mite predators and likely to result in an increase in mite populations if used postbloom on pome fruits and after shuck fall on stone fruits. For resistance management, do not use Voliam xpress against more than one generation of a given pest species per growing season, and do not use immediately before or after other Group 3 or Group 28 insecticides. The best fit of this product is late season on apple for the control of internal worms, leafrollers and stink bugs. Restrictions include an REI of 24 hours and PHI of 21 days on pome fruits and 14 days on stone fruits.  It is important to note that use of products containing lamda-cyhalothrin will influence the use of other products containing the same active ingredient (Voliam Xpress, Endigo) and those containing the closely related compound, gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare, Proaxis) in the same season, since the seasonal maximum allowances for gamma- and lambda-cyhalothrin are cumulative. Do not apply more than the combined seasonal maximum for both active ingredients.  REI = 24-hours; PHI = 21 days (pome fruits, 14 days (stone fruits).

LAMBDA-CYHALOTHRIN AND THIAMETHOXAM (ENDIGO) is a pre-mix combination of these two active ingredients, formulated as an aqueous-based formulation, and labeled for use in pome and stone fruit against many pest insects. It is highly toxic to bees and may not be applied after early pre-bloom growth stages or before post-bloom (petal fall). Its labeled rate range is 5.0 to 6.0 fl oz, with a seasonal maximum of 28.0 fl oz in pome fruit and 19.0 fl oz in stone fruit. It is important to note that use of Endigo and other products containing lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior, Lambda-Cy, Silecer, Voliam Xpress), gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare, Proaxis) or thiamethoxam (Actara, Voliam Flexi) in the same season will contribute to the seasonal maximum allowances for these active ingredients. REI = 24 hours, PHI = 35 days (pome fruit). 14 days (stone fruit).

MATING DISRUPTION is registered for control of codling moth, oriental fruit moth and peach borers. For codling moth and oriental fruit moth, hand-placed pheromone dispensers are available in several formulations (Isomate rope, Checkmate membrane, Disrupt laminate) for managing each species separately and a sprayable formulation is available for oriental fruit moth (Checkmate OFM-F). Two hand-placed formulations are registered for simultaneous control of both species (Isomate CM/OFM TT, Checkmate CM-OFM Duel). Rope dispensers are available for lesser peachtree borer (Isomate LPTB) and peachtree borer (Isomate PTB). Since formulations for codling moth and oriental fruit moth differ in the length of control provided, it is important to read the label and to consult a fruit entomologist or technical representative or distributor for selection and best use of available options.  In addition, a puffer product is available for both CM and OFM (CheckMate Puffer CM-O, CheckMate Puffer OFM-O); there is also a combined product for both species (CheckMate CM-OFM).  In orchards greater than 40 acres, puffer canisters should be applied at the rate of one per acre (2 per acre for heavy infestations).  Use the two per acre rate for orchards less than 40 acres.  Place canisters along the edge toward prevailing winds, in addition to a regular grid pattern in the orchard.  Monitoring the target species with pheromone traps and scouting for damage at appropriate timings will verify the effectiveness of mating disruption and is strongly recommended, especially when first using this tactic.  A mating disruption product for dogwood borer is now available.

METHIDATHION (SUPRACIDE) is available as a 25WP and 2EC. It is an organophosphate insecticide that is utilized in the dormant or delayed-dormant stage to control aphids and scale. It may be applied with or without oil and is recommended at the 1-2 lbs or 1-2 pts per 100 gal rate. The 2 lb or 2 pt rate is best for scale control. The rate may be reduced to 1 lb or 1 pt per 100 gal for aphid control.  REI = 48-hours; See Table 26 for PHI.

METHOMYL (LANNATE) insecticide is registered for use on apple for control of aphid, budmoth, codling moth, leafroller, and leafhopper, and on peach for oriental fruit moth control.  A SLN 24(c) label is also available for use on nectarines in Virginia and West Virginia.  Two formulations are available, Lannate LV (2.4 lb/gal) and Lannate 90SP. Methomyl has demonstrated ovicidal activity against variegated leafroller and tufted apple budmoth.  REI = days (apple and nectarine), 4 days (peaches), 2 days (all others); See Table 26 for PHI.

METHOXYFENOZIDE (INTREPID) is an insect growth regulator that is the second motl accelerating compound (MAC) to receive registration.  It has selective activity against lepidopterous pests, controlling the larval stage by initiating a premature molt that results in  death from starvation and dehydration.  Because this activity is expressed primarily through larval ingestion of treated surfaces, thorough coverage is necessary for effective control.  Due to its low toxicity to beneficial insects, Intrepid has a good fit in IPM programs.  It is registered on pome and stone fruits for control of oriental fruit moth, lesser appleworm, spotted tentiform leafminer and various leafroller species, with suppression of codling moth at the highest labeled rateREI = 4-hours; PHI = 14 days (pome fruits), 7 days (nectarine, peach and plum).

NOVALURON (RIMON) is registered on apple for the control of codling moth, oriental fruit moth, and various leafroller species.  Rimon is an insect growth regulator that interferes with the insect’s ability to form chitin, thus disrupting the molting process.  Therefore, it is effective only against the immature stages of insects, and will not kill adults.  Route of insect entry is primarily through ingestion, with some contact activity.   Toxicity to eggs has also been demonstrated for some insect species.  For most effective control, applications of Rimon should be initiated at the beginning of egg-laying for codling moth and oriental fruit moth, and at the beginning of egg hatch for leafroller species. Rimon is available as a 0.83EC and applied at the rate of 20-40 oz/acre, with a maximum of 4 applications (150 oz/acre) per season.  REI = 12 hours; PHI = 14 days.

OILS (superior-type) result from a high degree of refining. The minimum specifications for three weights of superior oil are:
                                                                       VISCOSITY
PROPERTY*                                            60 sec.   70 sec.   100 sec.
Viscosity 1 at 100 o F, sec. (max.)                    63          75          90-120
Gravity, 2 API (minches)                              35               34          31
Unsulfonated residue, 3 (minches)              94               92           90
Pour Point, 4 0 F (max.)                               20              20           30
Distillation, 5 10 mm Hg. o F 50% point    412 + 8     435 + 8
10 to 90% range o F (max.)                         65               80
* - Determined according to the following ASTM Methods: 1 D-445-65 and D-2161-66; 2 D-287-67; 3 D-483-63; 4 D-97-66;  5 D-1160-61

Some spray oils, when mixed with other materials and with water from certain water supplies, result in an uneven distribu-tion of these materials in the spray tank. The oil appears to capture some materials and form large globules that separate from the water in the absence of vigorous agitation. Some mixtures cannot be made satisfactorily even with intense agitation. It is suggested that the compatibility of the oil with the other materials be tested by adding small amounts to water in a glass jar and stirring. If the mixture can be kept from separating by stirring, it should be all right for use. Some summer oils (Ultra Fine oil) have been shown to be effective against European red mites when three applications are made in the early post-bloom period.

OXAMYL (VYDATE L) is registered on apple and pear for the control of aphids, mites, white apple leafhopper and tentiform leafminer at the rate of 1 to 2 pts per 100 gal of dilute spray. Vydate L will thin fruit if applied within 30 days after full bloom and has a SLN 24 (c) registration for such use in Virginia and West Virginia.  REI = 48-hours; PHI = 14 days

PERMETHRIN (AMBUSH, PERM-UP, POUNCE) is a pyrethroid insecticide registered for use on apple, pear, peach, nectarine, and cherry. Applications are limited to dormant to prebloom on pear, and through petal fall on apple. It is recommended for the prebloom control of spotted tentiform leafminer (apple), plant bugs (apple, peach, nectarine, pear), and pear psylla (pear). Use of this product increases the risk of mite outbreaks, especially when applied after bloom. Permethrin is available as both 3.2EC (Perm-UP, Pounce) and 25WP (Ambush, Perm-UP, Pounce) formulations. REI = 12-hour; PHI = 3-days (cherry), 14-days (peach and nectarine).

PHOSMET (IMIDAN) is a broad-spectrum organophosphate insecticide formulated as a 70W powder. It is registered for use on a number of fruit pests, including codling moth, plum curculio, redbanded leafroller, oriental fruit moth, apple maggot and others.  Imidan may not be used on sweet cherries.  While phosmet is rated as good against native stink bugs, it is ineffective against brown marmorated stink bug.  REI = 12-hours; PHI = 14 days.

PROPARGITE (OMITE 30WS) is an acaricide that is available for non-bearing pome and stone fruits, and is used at the rate of 6 lb/A or 2 lb/100 gal of spray. It has performed well in mite control on apple. Omite is most effective during the warmer summer months, and its full effectiveness requires from 4 days to a week. It should not be used more than two times a season.  REI = 48-hours.

PYRIDABEN (NEXTER) is a contact acaricide/insecticide that has a unique mode of action as a mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor (METI), blocking cellular respiration. It therefore has efficacy against mite populations resistant to other acaricides. No more than two applications 30 days apart may be made per season; however control is fairly long-term, often exceeding 40 days. Nexter is moderately toxic to predators. Selection pressure toward resistance may be high because of the great mortality caused by Nexter.Application rate is 4.4-5.2 oz per acre for ERM and 8.8-10.7 oz per acre for TSM.   REI = 12-hours; PHI = 25 days (apple), 300 days (cherries), and 7 days (all others).

PYRIPROXYFEN (ESTEEM) is an insect growth regulator that inhibits the development of eggs and immature stages and adult emergence of target insects. Although this product has no direct activity on adult insects, the hatching of eggs laid by treated adults is often suppressed. Because activity of this product depends on insect development, evidence of control will be slower than with typical contact insecticides. Available as a 35 WP, Esteem is registered on apple for the control of aphids, leafminers, San Jose scale and codling moth, and on stone fruits for San Jose scale. It is also registered on pear for the control of pear psylla, San Jose scale and codling moth. As a resistance management strategy, use is limited to two applications per season at a rate of 4-5 oz per acre.  REI = 12-hours; PHI = 45 days (pome fruit), 14 days (stone fruits).

RYNAXYPYR (ALTACOR 35WDG) has received a federal label for pome and stone fruits, and is awaiting state registrations.  It is effective against  lepidopteran pest, plum curculio, apple maggot and white apple leafhopper.  Use rate is 2.5-4.5 ounces/A.  PHI = 14 days, REI = 4 hours.  The common name is also given as chlorantraniliprole.

SPINETORAM (DELEGATE) Spinetoram is related to spinosad, and is derived from the fermentation, followed by the chemical modification of a naturally occurring soil organism. This product affects the insect nervous system through both contact and ingestion, with excellent translaminar activity. Targeted pests in this area include internal worms (codling moth, oriental fruit moth), leafrollers, and leafminers on apple; pear psylla on pear; and oriental fruit moth, leafrollers, thrips, and cherry fruit fly on stone fruits. Addition of an adjuvant may improve control of thrips, leafminers, and pear psylla. Delegate will only provide suppression of apple maggot and plum curculio. This product has demonstrated excellent control of internal worms and leafrollers in tests conducted on apple in the mid-Atlantic region. Application rate is 4.5 to 7 oz per acre, with a seasonal maximum of four applications and 28 oz per acre. To reduce the potential for resistance development, Delegate should not be applied to consecutive insect generations, but rotated with other chemistries for the management of internal worms and leafrollers. REI = 4-hours; PHI = 14-days (apricot), 7-day (apple, pear, cherry, plum, and prune), and  and 1 day (peach and nectarine).

SPINOSAD (ENTRUST) belongs to the Naturalyte class of insecticides, derived from a soil microorganism, and has been designated by EPA as a reduced risk pesticide because of low toxicity and environmental benefits.  This product is listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) as an option for organic pest management.  It is registered on apple at 2-3 oz/A and on stone fruits at 1.25-2.5 oz/A, and provides good control of tufted apple bud moth, variegated leafroller, obliquebanded leafroller, spotted tentiform leafminer and western flower thrips. Entrust is a nerve poison that provides control by contact and ingestion, with fairly short residual activity. Leafminer control is enhanced by the addition of a penetrating agent.  The mode of action is unique.  REI = 4-hours; PHI = 7 days (apple, cherry and plum), 1 day (peach).

SPIRODICLOFEN (ENVIDOR) is an acaricide registered for use on all pome and stone fruits for the control of European red mite, twospotted spider mite, apple and pear rust mites, and peach silver mite.  The active ingredient acts as a lipid biosynthesis inhibitor, with contact activity against mite eggs, immature stages and adult females; adult males are not affected.  Due to its insect growth regulator properties, Envidor should be applied on a preventive basis or at a low mite threshold, with performance evaluation conducted 4-10 days following application.  Formulated as a 2SC, the application rate is 16-18 oz per acre, with a maximum of one application per season.  Minimum application volume (ground application only) is 50 gal/acre on stone fruits and 100 gal/acre on pome fruits.  REI = 12 hours; PHI =  7 days.

SPIROTETRAMAT (MOVENTO) is registered for the control of sucking insect pests on all pome and stone fruits. It is a systemic foliar insecticide that belongs to the tetramic acid chemical class (same class as Envidor®) and is classified as a lipid biosynthesis inhibitor. Movento is active by ingestion against the immature stages of aphids, scale, and pear psylla, and also has impact on exposed female adults by reducing fecundity and survival of offspring. Upon penetration of the leaf cuticle, Movento exhibits “2-way systemicity” by moving to all areas of the plant, including new shoot, leaf and root tissues. Formulated as a 2SC, rate of application is 6-9 fl oz per acre, with a seasonal maximum of 15.3 fl oz per acre on stone fruits and 25 fl oz per acre on pome fruits. Movento should not be applied prior to petal fall in order for sufficient leaf tissue to be present for uptake and translocation. In addition, Movento must be tank-mixed with a spray adjuvant/additive having spreading and penetrating properties to maximize leaf uptake and systemicity of the product within treated plants. However, the use of Induce® adjuvant in combination with Movento is prohibited on pome and stone fruits when fruits are present due to adverse plant compatibility.  REI = 24-hours; PHI of 7 days.

Sulfoxaflor (closer) is a Group 4C insecticide registered for use on pome and stone fruit for control of aphids, leafhoppers and plant bugs. Closer is formulated as a soluble concentrate (SC) for use at rates ranging from 1.5 – 5.75 fl oz per acre, depending upon the target pest.  Up to four applications per season are permitted, with not more than two consecutive applications per crop and not more than 17 fl oz per acre per season.  This compound has acute toxicity to bees via ingestion or direct contact, and applications must not be made at any time between 3 days before bloom until after petal fall. REI = 12 hours; PHI = 7 days.

THIACLOPRID (CALYPSO) is a systemic insecticide in the neonicotinoid class of chemicals with registration on pome and stone fruit.  It has broad-spectrum activity, similar to Assail, against aphids, leafhoppers, leafminers, mirid bugs, plum curculio, apple and cherry maggot, and internal worms. Calypso is formulated as a 4F, with application rates of 2-4 fl oz per acre for sucking insects, 3-6 fl oz per acre for cherry maggot, and 4-8 fl oz per acre for all others.  Single application use is limited to a maximum of 8 fl oz per acre. Seasonal maximum use is restricted to 16 fl oz per acre in pome fruit and 12 fl oz per acre in stone fruit. REI = 12 hours; PHI = 30 days in pome fruit; 14 days in stone fruit.

THIAMETHOXAM (ACTARA) is a systemic insecticide in the neonicotinoid class of chemicals that is registered for insect control on all pome and stone fruits. It provides control through contact and ingestion, and is especially effective against aphids, leafhoppers, leafminers, and pear psylla. Actara is available as a 25WG and may be used during both the prebloom and postbloom periods at rates of 2.0 to 5.5 oz per acre, depending upon insect species. Prebloom use is limited to one application on all tree fruits. A season maximum of 8 oz per acre is permitted.  It is important to note that use of Actara and other products containing thiamethoxam (Endigo, Voliam Flexi) in the same season will contribute to the seasonal maximum allowance for this active ingredient.  REI = 12 hours; PHI = 14 days on stone fruits, 14 days on pome fruits for rates up to 2.75 oz per acre, and 35 days on pome fruits for higher rates. 

THIAMETHOXAM AND CHLORANTRANILIPROLE (VOLIAM FLEXI) is a pre-mix combination of 20% of each active ingredient, and is available as a 40WDG. The combination of these two active ingredients enables Voliam flexi to provide broad spectrum control of over 15 sucking and chewing pests on pome fruits and over 10 pests on stone fruits. Application rate ranges from 4-7 oz per acre, depending upon the target pest, with a seasonal maximum of four applications and 16 oz per acre on pome fruits, and three applications and 14 oz per acre on stone fruits. Apply in a minimum of 100 gallons of water per acre. Do not use an adjuvant with Voliam flexi on cherries, nor within 60 days of harvest on pome fruits. Voliam flexi is highly toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment or to residues on blooming crops. Therefore, do not apply after early pink through bloom in apple; after green cluster bud through bloom in pear; and from swollen bud through bloom in stone fruits. In addition, wait at least five days before placing beehives in a treated orchard. For resistance management, do not use more than two consecutive applications of Voliam flexi, and do not use immediately before or after other Group 4A or Group 28 insecticides. The best fit of this product on apple is for first generation codling moth. This timing will also control plum curculio, spirea aphids, and early egg hatch of tufted apple bud moth. The best fit on peaches is from petal fall through shuck fall for the control of plum curculio, tarnished plant bug, stink bugs and green peach aphids.  It is important to note that use of Voliam Flexi and other products containing thiamethoxam (Actara, Endigo) in the same season will contribute to the seasonal maximum allowance for this active ingredient.  REI = 12 hours; PHI = 35 days (pome fruits), 14 day (stone fruits).

ZETA-CYPERMETHRIN (MUSTANG MAX) is a 0.8EC pyrethroid insecticide registered for the control of numerous insect species on pome and stone fruits. Rate of application is 1.28 to 4.0 fl oz per acre, with a seasonal maximum of 24 fl oz per acre. As with other pyrethroids, this product is highly toxic to mite predators, and postbloom use is more likely to result in an increase in mite populations. REI = 12-hour; PHI = 14-days.

Table 3.  Insecticides certified by Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) for organic pest control.

Common name

Trade name

Target Insects

azadirachtin

Aza-Direct, Neemazad, Neemazal

Rosy apple aphid, spotted tentiform leafminer, codling moth, oriental fruit moth

Bacillus thuringiensis

various

Leafrollers, defoliating caterpillars, gypsy moth

CM granulovirus

Carpovirusine, Cyd-X

Codling moth

kaolin

Surround

Leafhoppers, plum curculio, ample maggot, Japanese beetle, pear psylla

Pheromones (mating disruption)

Isomate and Puffer products

Codling moth, oriental fruit moth

spinosad

Entrust

Leafrollers, spotted tentiform leafminer, thrips