Insecticide Modes of Action

Updated 31 March 2017
Primary Target Site (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) classification scheme)
Acetyl choline esterase inhibitors (Resistance Group 1) carbamates (1A): carbaryl (Sevin), methomyl (Lannate), oxamyl (Vydate).  organophosphates (1B): chlorpyrifos (Lorsban), diazinon (Diazinon), phosmet (Imidan).
Sodium channel modulators (Resistance Group 3) pyrethroids, pyrethrins: beta-cyfluthrin (Baythroid), bifenthrin (Bifenture, Brigade, Capture), cyfluthrin Tombstone), esfenvalerate (Adjourn, Asana), fenpropathrin (Danitol), gamma-cyhalothrin (Declare, Proaxis), lambda-cyhalothrin (Lambda-Cy, Silencer, Warrior; In part Voliam Xpress, Endigo), permethrin (Ambush, Pounce), zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang Maxx).
Acetyl choline receptor agonists/antagonists (Resistance Group 4) chloronicotinyls or neonicotinoids: acetamiprid (Assail), clothianidin (Belay), imidacloprid (Admire Pro, Alias), thiacloprid (Calypso), thiamethoxam (Actara, Agri-Flex; In part Voiam Flexi, Endigo)   (Resistance Group 4C) sulfoxaflor (Closer)  (Resistance Group 4D) flupyradifurone (Sivanto)
Acetyl choline modulators (Resistance Group 5) spinosad (Entrust), spinetoram (Delegate, Radiant)
Chloride channel activators (Resistance Group 6) abamectin (Abba, Agri-Mek, Temprano, Gladiator), emamectin benzoate (Proclaim)
Juvenile hormone mimics (Resistance Group 7) pyriproxyfen (Esteem)
Potassium channel blockers (Resistance Groud 9C) flonicamid (Beleaf
Unknown (Resistance Group 10) clofentezine (Apollo), hexythiazox (Savey, Onager), etoxazole (Zeal)
Microbial disruptors of midgut membranes (Resistance Group 11) Bacillus thuringiensis (Dipel)
Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation (Resistance Group 12B) organotins fenbutatin oxide (Vendex)
Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation (Resistance Group 12C) propargite (Omite)
Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 0, lepidopteran (Resistance Group 15) diflubenzuron (Dimilin), novaluron (Rimon)
Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 1, homopteran (Resistance Group 16) buprofezin (Centaur)
Ecdysone agonist/disruptors (Resistance Group 18A) methoxyfenozide (Intrepid), tebufenozide (Confirm)
Mitochondrial complex III electron transport inhibitors (Resistance Group 20) acequinocyl (Kanemite)
Mitochondrial complex I electron transport inhibitors (Resistance Group 21 and 21A) rotenone, pyridaben (Nexter), fenproximate (Portal), tolfenpyrad (Apta)
Voltage dependent sodium channel blockers (Resistance Group 22) oxadiazines: indoxacarb (Avaunt)
Lipid synthesis inhibitor (Resistance Group 23) - spirodiclofen (Envidor), spirotetramat (Movento)
Neural inhibitors (unknown mode of action) (Resistnaec Grop 25) cyflumetofen ((Nealta)
Ryanodine receptor agonist (Resistance Group 28) - anthranilamides:
chlorantraniliprole (rynaxypyr) (Altacor, Coragen), cyantraniliprole (Exirel), flubendiamide (Belt, Tourismo)
Neuronal inhibitors of unknown mode of action (Resistance Group 25) bifenazate (Acramite)
Other pathogens CM granulovirus (Cyd-X, Carpovirusine)

Note:  Some commercial products contain combinations of active ingredients from different resistance groups.